Vaccination against coronavirus disease in 2022
15407.10.2022

Author of the article: Romanenko Valeriya

Medical director, Family Physician, Emergency Chief

Vaccination against coronavirus disease in 2022

The coronavirus disease pandemic swept the world at the beginning of 2020. Started from sprimg 2021, the first available vaccines against covid-19 appeared in the world and each country began mass vaccination in order to reduce morbidity, complications and mortality from the coronavirus disease

As of fall 2022, many people in different parts of the world have been vaccinated and received 1 or 2 booster doses of the antiviral vaccine.

It has been proven that different vaccines have different effects on reducing the risk of infection with the SARS-CoV-19 virus, but each of the available vaccines significantly reduces the risk of complications and death of a person due to infection with a coronavirus infection.

That is, vaccination even in such a short time is a reliable and safe protection against the disease and complications of the coronavirus infection.

Effectiveness of vaccines against coronavirus infection in relation to disease, prevention of complications and deaths

Below are data from vaccine manufacturers on the effectiveness of each vaccine after 2 vaccinations and a booster dose.

Vaccine

Protection against all symptomatic disease after 1st dose (95% CI)*

Protection against all symptomatic disease after 2nd dose (95% CI)*

Protection against severe disease or hospitalization from start of vaccination (95% CI)*

Protection against severe disease or hospitalization from 21 days after 1st dose (95% CI)*

AstraZeneca

73% (56%-83%)**

67% (57% to 74%)**

90% (58%-98%)

100%

Moderna

85% (66%-93%)

95% (90%-97%)

100%

100%

Pfizer-BioNTech

82% (76%-87%)

94% (90%-97%)

89% (12%-99%)

83% (-38% to 98%)

Sinopharm

n/a

78% (65%-86%)

n/a

79% (26%-94%)

Sinovac

n/a

51% (36%-62%)

n/a

100%

Janssen/Johnson& Johnson

66% (55%-75%)***

n/a

77% (55%-89%) after 14 days

85% (54%-97%) after 28 days

Available vaccines against coronavirus infection in Ukraine

In October 2022, in Ukraine, it is possible to get vaccination with the following vaccines against coronavirus infection:

  1. CoronaVac vaccine (Sinovac), manufactured by Sinopharm, China. The vaccine is approved for use  people over 18 years of age. The interval between 1 and 2 doses of the vaccine should be 4 weeks (28 days). 2 doses of Coronavac vaccine is a course of vaccinations. All subsequent doses are called booster doses (maintenance). A booster vaccine (actually it will be 3 doses for a person) is administered 6 months or later after 2 doses.
  2. Janssen vaccine manufactured by Johnson and Johnson, USA, Belgium. The vaccine is approved for use for people over 18 years of age. For the first course of vaccination, 1 dose is enough. A booster dose (this will be the second dose for a person) is administered 6-9 months after the first dose.
  3. Comirnaty vaccine manufactured by Pfizer, BioN Tech, USA, Belgium. The vaccine is approved in Ukraine for use for kids from 5 years of age (updated information on the website of the Ministry of Health from September 2022). The vaccination course consists of 2 doses with an interval of 21-28 days among 1 and 2 doze. A booster dose (3, 4 doses) is recommended 6 or more months after the first 2 doses.

Combination of vaccines for 1 and 2 doses of coronavirus disease

The same vaccines should be chosen for the first and second doses of vaccines.

If the first dose was made with the Comirnati vaccine (manufactured by Pfizer), the second dose after 21-28 days should be made with the same vaccine.

If the first dose was made with the Koronavak vaccine (manufacturer Sinopharm), the second dose after 28 days should be made with the same vaccine.

The Jansen vaccine (manufactured by Johnson & Johnson) does not require a second vaccine for a full cycle, only a booster dose.

Vaccines for a booster dose against coronavirus infection

According to USA, Canada, , Australia and European countries recommendations, for a booster dose can be used any of the available vaccines against the coronavirus disease. It should be clarified that not all countries use the Coronavac and AstraZeneca vaccine to obtain a course of vaccination and a booster dose.

In according to dates in table, Pfizer-Modern, Moderna-Pfizer and Johnson-Pfizer combinations show the best result in terms of increasing antibodies, and therefore in terms of the protection level against coronavirus disease and complications.

If the first course of vaccination was carried out with the Coronavac vaccine, you can choose the Coronavac or Comirnati (Pfizer) or Jansen (Johnson) vaccine for the booster.

If the first course was conducted with Pfizer or Moderna or Astrazeneca vaccines.
 For a booster, you can choose Comirnati (Pfizer) or Jansen (Johnson) or Coronavak (Synopharm).

If the first course was carried out with the Jansen (Johnson) vaccine. A booster dose can be made with Comirnati (Pfizer), Jansen (Johnson) vaccine.

Kids vaccination against coronavirus infection

In September 2022, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine allowed vaccinating children aged 5 to 18 y.o with Comirnati vaccine (Pfizer). In 2022, there are no more restrictions on a child's full vaccination schedule. A child can be vaccinated against coronavirus infection with the permission of the child's parents or guardians. The interval of vaccination against coronavirus infection for kids is the same as for adults. The recommended interval between the 1st and 2nd doses is 21-28 days and 6 months for the booster dose.

Violation of the interval during vaccination against coronavirus infection

The minimum permissible interval between the 1st and 2nd doses of vaccines is 21 days, the maximum permissible interval is as soon as possible after 28 days (up to 38 days, the interval is not desirable, but permissible). If it happened that the interval was increased, the 2nd dose of the vaccine should be given as soon as possible. Do not assume that the vaccination scheme will not be effective. Antibodies in sufficient quantity will be formed after vaccination with the 2 doses. If the period between the 1st and 2nd doses has significantly increased, it is advisable to take a booster dose in the recommended period after 6 months to enhance the effect of the 1st and 2nd doses.

Used sources:

https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/feature-stories/detail/the-j-j-covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/downloads/COVID-19-immunization-schedule-ages-6months-older.pdf#page=4
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/overview-COVID-19-vaccines.html