Ultrasound is one of the most accessible, highly informative, safe methods of diagnosis in medical practice, which is performed using a special device - ultrasound scanner.
The ultrasonic transmitter emits high-frequency sound waves from 2.5 to 10 MHz, which are not perceived by the human ear. Ultrasonic waves are sent using sensors of different frequencies. Penetrating into the tissues of the human body, they are reflected back to the sensor, which with the help of a converter displays the image on the monitor.
Depending on the density of tissues and organs, ultrasound penetrates them differently. For example: high-density tissues - do not transmit sound (kidney stones), and fluid (bladder, gallbladder, etc.), on the contrary, completely passes it and serves as a kind of "amplification" for the passage of waves.
Indications for ultrasound diagnosis:
- Assessment of the condition of internal organs and soft tissues;
- Screening ultrasound examination of a child under 3 years of age;
- Checking the patency of blood vessels and blood flow velocity;
- Exclusion or detection of tumors, stones;
- If you suspect the presence of injuries or birth defects;
- Excluding the possibility of developing some pathological conditions in the early stages
- Observation of pregnancy
The survey has no age restrictions or contraindications. Ultrasound is safe for pregnant women and children, as this method does not involve the use of radiation.
Usually, the examination does not require special training. Before ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and kidneys, it is desirable three days before the study to exclude from the diet of gas-forming products (black bread, milk, cabbage, peas, beans, juices, carbonated beverages, sweets, raw vegetables, fruits), fatty foods, morning examination do not eat. However, these measures do not always lead to the desired result, and in some cases can provoke an increase in gas in the intestines. Means that normalize intestinal motility and accelerate the evacuation of gases from it are used to treat flatulence syndrome.
Ultrasound of the pelvic organs is transabdominally performed with a full bladder (40-60 minutes before the study you need to drink 1.5 liters of fluid). Ultrasound of the pelvic organs transvaginally, on the contrary, is performed during an empty bladder.
Ultrasound of the mammary glands is performed for 5-10 days of the menstrual cycle, for menopausal women - at any time.
Do not require special ultrasound training of the heart, blood vessels, thyroid gland, joints, lymph nodes, soft tissues, scrotum and penis.
If you have skin lesions (wounds, burns, rashes) in the area of diagnosis, it is advisable to postpone the visit to the ultrasound room until complete healing.
Stages of implementation
Examination of the patient is carried out mainly in a supine position (on the couch). The skin of the examination area is lubricated with a special gel that improves the conductivity of ultrasonic waves, after which the ultrasonic sensor slides on the surface to visualize on the screen the desired organ with subsequent image capture and measurement.
The research procedure, depending on the species, can last from a few minutes to 1-1.5 hours. Usually the process of ultrasound diagnosis is not accompanied by pain, although some discomfort during the examination during compression by the sensor may be felt. Pain can occur when examining an organ that is affected by a pathological (often inflammatory) process.
What the survey shows
This method of diagnosis makes it possible to obtain accurate information about the size, location and condition of internal organs, as well as any abnormalities and possible diseases. With the help of ultrasound can detect many diseases. His data allow the doctor to obtain additional evidence of the disease, as well as to see the degree of organ damage in some diseases.
Ultrasound has become a standard method of diagnosis during pregnancy and plays an important role in monitoring every pregnant woman.
Any test results should be evaluated not only by a functional or ultrasound doctor, but also by another specialist for further testing.