Cervical biopsy is a diagnostic procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed for further examination. Learn more about this procedure before the procedure so that you can properly prepare for it. Universum clinic doctors have prepared the necessary minimum information about biopsy for patients.
Why and who needs a cervical biopsy?
The main purpose of the procedure is to detect cancerous and precancerous formations. But your gynecologist may prescribe a biopsy to diagnose other pathologies or diseases.
What other indications are there for such an examination?
- The appearance of non-cancerous growths on the cervix (for example, polyps).
- Genital warts.
- The presence of erosion - then a biopsy of erosion of the cervix is performed.
- The patient is in the risk group for the development of cancer.
Also, a biopsy may be prescribed if the doctor has other concerns about the patient's health, and he believes that it will help in the diagnosis.
You should not prescribe such an analysis yourself, or try to decipher its results: the patient does not have the necessary competencies and may harm his health.
Types of biopsy
There are different methods for obtaining a tissue sample from the cervix, depending on the purpose of the procedure, the patient's condition, and other medical circumstances. At Universum clinic, we offer all available types of cervical biopsy:
- colposcopic (or puncture) - with the use of biopsy forceps and the use of special staining solutions for a better understanding of the picture;
- conical - performed under general anesthesia, the procedure uses a scalpel or laser to remove cone-shaped tissues;
- endocervical curettage - taking tissues from the endocervical canal with the help of a special hook-shaped instrument, "curet".
The choice of the type of procedure depends on your medical history and state of health. You can clarify with your gynecologist the reason for prescribing a specific type of biopsy - describe all the features in detail.
How to prepare for the procedure?
There are general recommendations that will allow you to go through the research as safely and comfortably as possible. Usually, a biopsy does not require special preparatory procedures, but if anesthesia is planned, it may be necessary to refuse food 6-12 hours before the start. In any case, the intervention is a stress for the body. Therefore, exclude additional loads in the form of cigarettes, alcohol and heavy food 1-2 days before the biopsy.
Do not hide any health details from your doctor. Especially when it comes to pregnancy, feeling unwell or allergic to drugs. Also report all medications you are taking.
Within 24 hours before the intervention, exclude sexual contact, do not use tampons, ointments, intravaginal suppositories and creams. A biopsy should be performed 5-10 days after menstruation. Don't forget to ask your doctor for additional preparation recommendations.
Is it painful to do a biopsy of the cervix? How is the tissue collection process?
Features of the procedure depend on its type, purpose and patient's condition. Usually, cervical tissues are collected according to the same standard algorithm.
- The doctor will ask you to empty your bladder before starting the biopsy.
- The healthcare provider uses a standard gynecological medical speculum to push the walls of the vagina apart and reach the cervix.
- A colposcope and special forceps may be used for fixation.
- The doctor can also use a vinegar or iodine solution to stain abnormal tissues - to understand from which area the tissue needs to be removed. You may feel a slight tingling sensation.
- The amount of removed tissue and the area of removal depend on the indications. After the samples are taken, you may feel a tingling or cramping sensation.
If necessary, the doctor can anesthetize a separate area. Anesthesia is mandatory for cone biopsy.
How is rehabilitation after a biopsy?
You may have some minor bleeding after the procedure. Your doctor will recommend special means for hemostasis in the form of a cream or paste. After the cone biopsy, a special bandage will be applied, which will later need to be removed according to the recommendations with the help of a doctor.
You can return home immediately after the procedure. Be prepared for the fact that in the first few days you may experience mild aching pain and spasms, and light bleeding is also possible. Within three weeks, the bleeding will turn into white discharge. Full rehabilitation will take 4-6 weeks - depending on the type of biopsy and the characteristics of your body.
Also, depending on the type of procedure, restrictions vary. Most likely, you will have to give up sexual contact, physical activity, tampons and douching.
You will receive detailed recommendations from your doctor. Pay attention: if you feel unwell after the procedure, be sure to inform the doctor.