Mycoplasmosis stands out among sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Pathogens are extremely common, do not have a cell wall, affect the genitourinary and respiratory system of both adults and kids. Inflammation is sluggish, often the client does not have any complaints or significant discomfort.
Universum Clinic Medical Team will take into account these and other nuances of the disease during the diagnosis and treatment of mycoplasmosis. Otherwise, you should not count on the success of the therapy, and the disease manifestation will appear again and again.
For the first time, mycoplasmas were detected in 1981 in two men who suffered from long-term chronic urethritis. Microorganisms turned out to be so small and unusual that they were initially classified as viruses. However, further study showed that these are bacteria with their own unique properties:
- mycoplasmas do not have a cell wall;
- mycoplasmas do not have a nucleus;
- bacteria bind tightly to the membrane of the target cell and parasitize it.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure of pathogens, the use of some common antibiotics is useless. In fact, the intracellular mechanism of parasitism prevents the immune system from acting effectively: the immune system is unable to distinguish a pathogenic bacterium from its own tissues. Therefore, the inflammatory process, which is caused by mycoplasmas, usually has a sluggish, torpid course.
It is important to consider another property of mycoplasmas: in the women's body, they can sometimes live peacefully in the genital tract and do not lead to the appearance of any pathological process. Instead of men'’ body, where, they often cause genitourinary inflammation.
So if doctors from Universum.Clinic detect a micoplasmas infection, the patient's sexual partner or partners should also be examined to get the best results for the patient and avoid reinfection.
Of the many types of mycoplasmas, five species are pathogenic for humans:
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
- Mycoplasma hominis.
- M. genitalium.
- M. fermentans.
- Ureaplasma urealyticum.
Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and genitalium (M. genitalium) are the most pathogenic. These microorganisms most often lead to diseases of the genitourinary system.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae and M. hominis can affect the respiratory tract, and not only in adult men and women. Therefore, sometimes, when among family members there is a person infected with mycoplasmas, the treatment of mycoplasmosis also becomes necessary for kids.
Mycoplasmosis is transmitted through direct contact. The most significant way of transmission is sexual contact, but it is not the only one.
The following situations pose a risk of infection:
- traditional unprotected sex - mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract are infected;
- oral contacts - can lead to infection of the respiratory tract;
- anal sex - risk of mycoplasma proctitis;
- some forms of intimate fondling can lead to eye infection with further development of mycoplasma conjunctivitis.
There are also observations that mycoplasmas can be transmitted through hands contaminated with pathogens. This explains cases of kids eye damage.
Clinical symptoms of mycoplasmosis in men and women
Most often, the pathology is manifested by inflammation of the urogenital system. Also, long-term inflammation can cause problems from other organs, for example - the conjunctiva of the eyes, joints (as in the case of chlamydia).
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis of the respiratory system
Possible symptoms of the disease with respiratory tract damage:
- itching and sore throat as a symptoms of pharyngitis;
- dry cough as a symptom mycoplasma tracheobronchitis;
- prolonged 3-4 weeks cough, temperature rise to 37.1°C - 37.5 ° C can be symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia.
The well-being in case of mentioned diseases practically does not deteriorate, and the symptoms eventually subside. But not because the disease passed by itself, but as a result of the transition of the infection into a chronic form.
Such situations are possible after episodes of oral caress or when there is a person infected with mycoplasma in the family who does not know about his disease and is not treated. Doctor'’ consultation from the Universum Clinic Team becomes all the more important: we will protect not only the patient, but also his family members from parasites.
Symptoms men mycoplasmosis
The entrance gate becomes the urethra. Then infectious inflammation rises higher and spreads to other organs and systems.
Mycoplasmosis in men begins to manifest itself after the incubation period in 3–5 weeks from the moment of infection.
- itching and burning during urination, mucous threads in the urine in case of urethritis;
- mucous or mucous-purulent secretions from the urethra in case of bulbourethritis;
- discomfort during ejaculation, changes in the appearance and smell of semen in case of vesiculitis;
- swelling, edema, dropsy of the testicles in case of epididymitis;
Difficulty urinating, frequent urges in a small way, weakening of the stream of urine - prostatitis.
The general condition during urogenital men mycoplasmosis usually does not worsen. This contributes to the spread of infection, because the stronger gender tends to ignore common manifestations (urethritis, orchoepididymitis). Although, in order to be cured and not to endanger others, it is enough to go to the clinic.
Symptoms women mycoplasmosis
During unprotected vaginal sex, mycoplasmas first inseminate the epithelium of the vagina, cervix, and cervical canal. The incubation period lasts 15–20 days, but in about 70% of cases of infection, noticeable inflammatory phenomena do not appear.
The infection progresses from the bottom up, its symptoms are:
- itching, burning, dyspareunia, increased discharge, unpleasant smell from the vagina in case of vaginitis;
- discomfort and pulling pain in the lower abdomen in case of cervicitis;
- soreness and swelling at the entrance to the vagina in case of bartholinitis;
- burning sensation during urination and discharge, which women sometimes confuse with urinary incontinence in case of urethritis;
- heaviness in the lower abdomen, frequent, unbearable urges to the toilet in case of cystitis;
- pain to the right or left of the pubis, menstrual disorders in case of salpingo-oophoritis.
The course of the disease in many women is imperceptible to them. But the infectious process still has its negative impact on the body: it can become one of the causes of fallopian tube obstruction, infertility, and miscarriages.
We recommend testing for mycoplasmosis to all women who have problems getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy: doctors from Universum Clinic have everything you need to make an accurate diagnosis and effectively treat the infection.
Based on symptoms and clinical manifestations alone, it is impossible to establish correct diagnosis. Also, microorganisms cannot be seen under a microscope.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis requires laboratory tests:
- bacteriological test (sowing a smear from the urethra, vagina, throat, prostate liquid on a special nutrient medium);
- blood test for specific antibodies to mycoplasmas;
- examination of the sample (the same smear) by the method of polymerase chain reaction - PCR.
At Universum Clinic, PCR is preferred: a fast and accurate examination method. The results of the test make it possible to establish within one day whether a person is infected and with which pathogen (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, M. fermentans, Ureaplasma urealyticum) or their combination.
Doctor decide which drugs to use for treatment only after examining the patient and his sexual partner. The duration of the course is also planned individually.
Against the background of correctly selected treatment of mycoplasmosis, symptoms subside in 5-10 days. More efforts must be made to get rid of the consequences of the infection, to restore the couple's ability to conceive and give birth to a healthy child.
Immunity to mycoplasmas is not formed, therefore, even if a person already falls ill and recovers, it is impossible to avoid re-infection during contact with the carrier.
If unprotected sex still occurs, you need to visit a clinic for an examination, even when the symptoms of STDs seem to be absent. Doctors from Universum Clinic remind: frequent forms of asymptomatic mycoplasmosis can lead to infection of other family members, children.
- Heavey E. Mycoplasma genitalium. Nursing. 2017 Jul;47(7):61-62. doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000520524.30192.07. PMID: 28640054.
- Yu J. et al “Is there an association between recurrent spontaneous abortion and mycoplasma infection?” J Infect Dev Ctries. 2022 Aug 30;16(8):1302-1307. doi: 10.3855/jidc.15134. PMID: 36099373.
- Gdoura R. et al. “Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men”. BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 8;7:129. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-129. PMID: 17988404; PMCID: PMC2194714.
- Álvaro Varela AI. et al “Clinical characteristics of patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection”. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed). 2022 Oct;40(8):449-452. doi: 10.1016/j.eimce.2022.08.002. Epub 2022 Sep 22. PMID: 36154990.
Rate the article:
Number of ratings: 0
- the infection can be asymptomatic, mostly for women;
- the incubation period lasts from 2 to 5 weeks;
- if the genitourinary system is affected, men experience burning during urination, pain in one or both testicles, swelling of the scrotum (valve), difficulty urinating;
- women urogenital mycoplasmosis is manifested by itching and burning in the vagina, increased discharge, unpleasant odor, discomfort and pain in the lower abdomen, symptoms of cystitis, infertility;
- damage to the respiratory tract is manifested by a sore throat, a dry, prolonged cough;
- the temperature in any form of infection may not rise.
- often has an imperceptible course;
- the risk of infection of family members and children increases;
- the quality of sexual life decreases;
- the function of reproductive organs is disturbed;
- long-term sluggish inflammation increases the risk of autoimmune processes, Reiter's syndrome;
- it can lead to obstruction of the fallopian tubes.
- complete cure from mycoplasma is possible;
- the earlier the infection is detected, the easier it is to deal with it;
- you need to be treated together with your sexual partner;
- with the right choice of antibiotics, mycoplasmas can be destroyed in a few days;
- to combat old forms of the disease, several courses of therapy, local treatment may be required.
- during unprotected sexual contact with a sick person or an asymptomatic carrier;
- any type of sex is dangerous - traditional, anal, oral;
- through hands contaminated with pathogens.
- the risk of infection of family members increases significantly;
- infection infects the urinary tract with possible kidney damage;
- for women is high risk of endometritis, pelvic peritonitis;
- for men is high risk of dropsy the testicles;
- the risk of autoimmune diseases increases;
- infertility, chronic miscarriage occurs;
- if a mother infected with mycoplasmas gives birth, the baby becomes infected.